This section covers how to align your car track-side or in your garage and takes you through the procedure and the order of what to adjust.
How to Measure The first stage of adjusting and tuning your caster angle is to first measure and understand what your vehicle currently has. There are two main ways to measure your caster angle: Turning plates and a digital or bubble camber/caster gauge Measuring the location of the upper and
What Is Suspension Geometry? Suspension geometry is the positioning and angular movement of the suspension arms and the effect that they have upon the movement of the wheel and tyre. It is caused by the different components of the suspension system all moving in their designed paths, which together generate
What Is Suspension? Suspension in the automotive industry is a system of shocks, springs, uprights and arms that together keep a vehicle suspended above ground on its wheels. A suspension system is usually made up of the following components: Spring – This can come in many forms Damper – There
This section covers toe on a racing car. It describes and explains how to measure, adjust and alter toe to suit the driver and the style of circuit. The section covering the different effects of toe is separated into 3 categories; front wheel drive, rear wheel drive and four wheel
What is a Leaf Spring? A leaf spring is one of the earliest and most simple forms of spring within the automobile and motorsport world. It is simply a length of an iron or steel blade, attached to the chassis and each end and tied to the axle in the
Coil springs and leaf springs are the two most common type of spring within the automotive and motorsport industries. However, other types of spring have been tried and tested to try and get the edge over competitors. Some of the following springs are still used within motorsport today. Torsion Bars
What is a coil spring? A coil springs is a piece of bar that has been twisted to form the shape of a helix (spiral). It works in an up and down motion as a spring by using the vertical displacement to twist the bar making the spring. Therefore, it
What is an Anti-roll bar? An anti-roll bar is a tube of metal that works as a spring between left and right wheels. An anti-roll bar connects the vertical motions of the left and right wheels and works in parallel with the coil springs. During cornering, the outside wheel (be
What is a Damper? A damper is an oil filled tube with a piston inside. The piston moves through the oil, passing the oil through small precise holes and past a sprung shim, at a certain designed speed. Damper Construction A damper consists of: A main body A piston with
What Is Toe? Toe is the angle between each wheel with relation to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. It is usually measured when the car is static and is measured either in degrees or in millimetres. If it is measured by distance then it is usually the difference in
What Is Scrub Radius? When viewing a wheel from front view, the scrub radius is the distance between where the extrapolated line of kingpin axis touches the road and the tyre contact patch centre point. If the extrapolated KPI is outboard of the contact patch then the scrub radius is
On current suspension systems, the kingpin is set at an angle to the vertical plane when viewed from the front or rear of the vehicle. This angle is known as the king pin inclination. The purpose of the KPI is to produce vertical displacement of the vehicle in during steering in an upward direction. The larger the KPI, the larger the effect. This lifting effect produces a self centering torque similar to that of caster. The KPI also generates scrub radius.
What Is Grip? Grip, put basically, is the force generated between the tyre and the surface. The amount of grip generated and maintained is influenced heavily by the mass of the vehicle; the acceleration of the vehicle, the compound of the tyre, the compound of the road surface and by
What is Front View Swing Arm (FVSA)? The front view swing arm (FVSA) instant centre location controls the roll centre height, the camber change rate and the tyre lateral scrub. The instant centre can be located inboard of the wheel or outboard of the wheel. It can be above ground
Types of Suspension Systems There are many types of suspension systems used within motorsport; the most common being a spring and damper set up. The popularity of the spring and damper set up is mostly due to its compact size and its easy, fast and direct tune-ability. There are multiple